2019-09-27 08:59 来源:未知

US soldiers pursue militants in Helmand province. The shadowy Task Force 373 meanwhile focuses its efforts on more than 2,000 senior Taliban figures on a target

BBC News|叙瓦尔帕莱索方式

US soldiers pursue militants in Helmand province. The shadowy Task Force 373 meanwhile focuses its efforts on more than 2,000 senior Taliban figures on a target list. Photograph: Adrees Latif/Reuters

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Hello, I'm Mary Marshall with the BBC News. The number of people killed in the Taliban bomb attack in the Afghan capital Kabul has risen to 95. A further 158 others were injured. The Red Cross in Afghanistan has condemned the use of an ambulance to carry out an attack,saying it could be illegal under International Humanitarian Law. Our South Asia editor Joemy Giverin reports. The ambulance packed with explosives blew up close to a fortified area of the city near a hospital, but also offices used by the government, security forces and foreign missions. The street was crowded and most of the dead were local civilians. It's the Taliban second major attack in Kabul in a week. The current 【1】surgent violence comes as the US increases its support for Afghan forces, including more air strikes on militant targets and made government claims that it's finally winning the war against the Taliban and other militant groups.

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美军人兵在赫尔曼德省抓捕激进分子。那支代号为373的地下特遣部队同不经常间还负担着抓捕对象名单上2000多名塔利班高层的职分。油画:Adrees Latif/赫芬顿邮报


The Nato coalition in Afghanistan has been using an undisclosed "black" unit of special forces, Task Force 373, to hunt down targets for death or detention without trial. Details of more than 2,000 senior figures from the Taliban and al-Qaida are held on a "kill or capture" list, known as Jpel, the joint prioritised effects list.

The multibillionaire Prince Al-Waleed bin Talal is the latest high-profile figure to be released in Saudi Arabia after a major anti-corruption drive was launched in November. He is reported to have been freed this morning from detention in a luxury hotel in Riyadh. With more details, here is our Middle East analyst Sebastian Usher. In hot cash terms【流资上看】, Prince Al-Waleed bin Talal has been the biggest catch of all in the Saudi purge with an extraodinary array of business interests across the world. He is estimated to be worth some 17 billion dollars. He denied any charge has been made against him and expressed his total support forthe efforts by Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman towards a new Saudi Arabia. He 【2】vehemently dismissed a report, but he had been asked to hand over six billion dollars as the price ofhis release as well as rumors that he been tortured.

阿富汗的北印度洋公约组织联军从来在经过一支名称叫特遣部队373的地下特种部队搜捕一些对象人物,这么些目的人物在被批准逮捕未来不经济审核判就被处死或拘系起来,约有两千多名塔利班和驻地组织的中央成员已经被列入了那些“逮捕杀害”名单之中,该名单的科班名称是Jpel,即联合具名优先效应名单(joint prioritised effects list)。

2【|ˈvi:əmənt| ① (ADJ-GRADED) 激情的;激烈的;暴烈的 If a person or their actions or comments are vehement, the person has very strong feelings or opinions and expresses them forcefully.】
@a vehement denial/attack/protest, etc. 强烈的否认、攻击、抗议等

In many cases, the unit has set out to seize a target for internment, but in others it has simply killed them without attempting to capture. The logs reveal that TF 373 has also killed civilian men, women and children and even Afghan police officers who have strayed into its path.

The military in Mali says at least 14 soldiers have been killed in an attack in the northof the country. Nearly 20 others were injured. The suspected Islamic militants overran a military base in Soumpi 100 kilometers southwest of Timbuktu. Islamic attacks have increased in recent months. Earlier this week, 26 civilians were killed when their vehicle hit a land mine【地雷】 in central Mali. World news from the BBC.


The United Nations' special rapporteur for human rights, Professor Philip Alston, went to Afghanistan in May 2008 to investigate rumours of extrajudicial killings. He warned that international forces were neither transparent nor accountable and that Afghans who attempted to find out who had killed their loved ones "often come away empty-handed, frustrated and bitter".


联合国担负人权难题的特别报告人Philip·阿尔Stone教授于2010年三月份前去阿富汗,对地下处决(extrajudicial killing)的传说实行考察。在调研终结之后,阿尔Stone警告说,在阿富汗实行职分的国际军力既不透明,又不付义务,而那个愿意能在武装中找寻杀人刀客并为亲朋基友讨个公道的阿富汗人“平常是宏观空空的距离,无语而又心酸”。


Now, for the first time, the leaked war logs reveal details of deadly missions by TF 373 and other units hunting down Jpel targets that were previously hidden behind a screen of misinformation. They raise fundamental questions about the legality of the killings and of the long-term imprisonment without trial, and also pragmatically about the impact of a tactic which is inherently likely to kill, injure and alienate the innocent bystanders whose support the coalition craves.



On the night of Monday 11 June 2007, the leaked logs reveal, the taskforce set out with Afghan special forces to capture or kill a Taliban commander named Qarl Ur-Rahman in a valley near Jalalabad. As they approached the target in the darkness, somebody shone a torch on them. A firefight developed, and the taskforce called in an AC-130 gunship, which strafed the area with cannon fire: "The original mission was aborted and TF 373 broke contact and returned to base. Follow-up Report: 7 x ANP KIA, 4 x WIA." In plain language: they discovered that the people they had been shooting in the dark were Afghan police officers, seven of whom were now dead and four wounded.

日志显示,二零零六年16月31日的晚上,373大军联合阿富汗特种部队在贾拉拉巴德周边的一处山谷中计划对一名名叫奎阿尔·乌-Rahman的塔利班指挥官进行俘虏或暗杀,当他俩在一片紫铜色中快接近指标时,有人用火把照亮了她们,随后交火伊始了,特遣队召来了一架AC-130重型攻击机,用自行炮对这一区域推行了狂轰滥炸:“既定职分中止,373特遣部队在错失目的后归来营地。后续报告:7xANP KIA, 4xWIA。”用深入显出语言表示即为:事后发觉,在漆黑中他们射击的对象是阿富汗警务人士,结果是7人谢世,4人受到损伤。

The coalition put out a press release which referred to the firefight and the air support and then failed entirely to record that they had just killed or wounded 11 police officers. But, evidently fearing that the truth might leak, it added: "There was nothing during the firefight to indicate the opposing force was friendly. The individuals who fired on coalition forces were not in uniform." The involvement of TF 373 was not mentioned, and the story didn't get out.


However, the incident immediately rebounded into the fragile links which other elements of the coalition had been trying to build with local communities. An internal report shows that the next day Lieutenant Colonel Gordon Phillips, commander of the Provincial Reconstruction Team, took senior officers to meet the provincial governor, Gul Agha Sherzai, who accepted that this was "an unfortunate incident that occurred among friends". They agreed to pay compensation to the bereaved families, and Phillips "reiterated our support to prevent these types of events from occurring again".

就算如此,事故的发生依旧让民众联想起联军其余机构直接尝试与地点社区所创立起的这种薄弱联系。一份内部申报称,惨案发生后的第二天,省级重新建构队(Provincial Reconstruction Team)的指挥官中校Gordon·Phillips就领着一堆高端军人拜候了楠格哈尔省的院长古尔·阿迦·舍载,省长接受了那是“产生在恋人中间的三次不幸事故”的布道。联军同意对死伤者家属开展赔付,Phillips“一再重申要谨防类似事件的再一次产生”。

Yet, later that week, on Sunday 17 June, as Sherzai hosted a "shura" council at which he attempted to reassure tribal leaders about the safety of coalition operations, TF 373 launched another mission, hundreds of miles south in Paktika province. The target was a notorious Libyan fighter, Abu Laith al-Libi. The unit was armed with a new weapon, known as Himars – High Mobility Artillery Rocket System – a pod of six missiles on the back of a small truck.

二个星期以往的17月三十二日,为铲除地点官员对此联军行动安全性的忧郁,司长舍载特意主持举办了三次“舒拉”会议。可是,就在集会进行的还要,373特遣部队在数百英里之外的Parker蒂卡省南边又发动了贰遍抓捕职责,职分指标是臭名昭着的利比亚国好战分子阿布·来斯·阿尔-利比。该应战小组装配了一项最新军火,即所谓的高机动性火箭炮系统(High Mobility Artillery 罗克et System),简称Himars,它的基本点部分是在一辆小卡车的前面部装上的六发导弹。

The plan was to launch five rockets at targets in the village of Nangar Khel where TF 373 believed Libi was hiding and then to send in ground troops. The result was that they failed to find Libi but killed six Taliban fighters and then, when they approached the rubble of a madrasa, they found "initial assessment of 7 x NC KIA" which translates as seven non-combatants killed in action. All of them were children. One of them was still alive in the rubble: "The Med TM immediately cleared debris from the mouth and performed CPR." After 20 minutes, the child died.

373特遣大军以为利比藏身于一处名叫楠加凯尔的村落,他们陈设先向村庄里的对象发出5枚火箭弹,然后再派出地面部队进行攻击。等攻击实现之后,他们却开采利比并不设有,只是杀死了五名塔利班武装人士,而后当他们走到一处清真寺的残砖瓦砾时,又难以置信开采“初叶评估:7 x NC KIA”,即有7名非战役人士在行走中被误杀。那一个误杀对象都是男女,个中一位尚在废墟中险象迭生:“医治小组飞速理清了他口中的泥土碎屑,并开展了心肺复苏术。”20分钟现在,孩子因为伤势过重依然死掉了。


The coalition made a press statement which owned up to the death of the children and claimed that troops "had surveillance on the compound all day and saw no indications there were children inside the building". That claim is consistent with the leaked log. A press release also claimed that Taliban fighters, who undoubtedly were in the compound, had used the children as a shield.


The log refers to an unnamed "elder" who is said to have "stated that the children were held against their will" but, against that, there is no suggestion that there were any Taliban in the madrasa where the children died.


The rest of the press release was certainly misleading. It suggested that coalition forces had attacked the compound because of "nefarious activity" there, when the reality was that they had gone there to kill or capture Libi.


It made no mention at all of Libi, nor of the failure of the mission (although that was revealed later by NBC News in the United States). Crucially, it failed to record that TF 373 had fired five rockets, destroying the madrasa and other buildings and killing seven children, before anybody had fired on them – that this looked like a mission to kill and not to capture. Indeed, this was clearly deliberately suppressed.


The internal report was marked not only "secret" but also "Noforn", ie not to be shared with the foreign elements of the coalition. And the source of this anxiety is explicit: "The knowledge that TF 373 conducted a HIMARS strike must be protected." And it was. This crucial fact remained secret, as did TF 373's involvement.


Again, the lethal attack caused political problems. The provincial governor arranged compensation and held a shura with local leaders when, according to an internal US report, "he pressed the Talking Points given to him and added a few of his own that followed in line with our current story". Libi remained targeted for death and was killed in Pakistan seven months later by a missile from an unmanned CIA Predator.


In spite of this tension between political and military operations, TF 373 continued to engage in highly destructive attacks. Four months later, on 4 October, they confronted Taliban fighters in a village called Laswanday, only 6 miles from the village where they had killed the seven children. The Taliban appear to have retreated by the time TF 373 called in air support to drop 500lb bombs on the house from which the fighters had been firing.


The final outcome, listed tersely at the end of the leaked log: 12 US wounded, two teenage girls and a 10-year-old boy wounded, one girl killed, one woman killed, four civilian men killed, one donkey killed, one dog killed, several chickens killed, no enemy killed, no enemy wounded, no enemy detained.


The coalition put out a statement claiming falsely to have killed several militants and making no mention of any dead civilians; and later added that "several non-combatants were found dead and several others wounded" without giving any numbers or details.


This time, the political teams tried a far less conciliatory approach with local people. In spite of discovering that the dead civilians came from one family, one of whom had been found with his hands tied behind his back, suggesting that the Taliban were unwelcome intruders in their home, senior officials travelled to the stricken village where they "stressed that the fault of the deaths of the innocent lies on the villagers who did not resist the insurgents and their anti-government activities … [and] chastised a villager who condemned the compound shooting". Nevertheless, an internal report concluded that there was "little or no protest" over the incident.



The concealment of TF 373's role is a constant theme. There was global publicity in October 2009 when US helicopters were involved in two separate crashes in one day, but even then it was concealed that the four soldiers who died in one of the incidents were from TF 373.


The pursuit of these "high value targets" is evidently embedded deep in coalition tactics. The Jpel list assigns an individual serial number to each of those targeted for kill or capture and by October 2009 this had reached 2,058.


The process of choosing targets reaches high into the military command. According to their published US Field Manual on Counter Insurgency, No FM3-24, it is policy to choose targets "to engage as potential counter-insurgency supporters, targets to isolate from the population and targets to eliminate".

对象人物的采取经过涉及到武装部队指挥高层的暗意。已出版的《美军反叛乱沙场手册》(US Field 马努al on Counter Insurgency)FM3-24条规定,“为永葆反叛乱行动,从市民中隔断和淘汰有些目的,并与之交火”是一项既定政策。

A joint targeting working group meets each week to consider Target Nomination Packets and has direct input from the Combined Forces Command and its divisional HQ, as well as from lawyers, operational command and intelligence units including the CIA.

二个担当指标记其余一路专门的学业小组每种礼拜都举行议会,并对所谓的对象提名方案(Target Nomination Packets)实行研商,倘诺遇上一齐司令部(Combined Forces Command)、各师部、律师、应战指挥部和CIA情报部门提交上去的靶子名单,就直接列入Jpel。

Among those who are listed as being located and killed by TF 373 are Shah Agha, described as an intelligence officer for an IED cell, who was killed with four other men on 1 June 2009; Amir Jan Mutaki, described as a Taliban sub-commander who had organised ambushes on coalition forces, who was shot dead from the air in a TF 373 mission on 24 June 2009; and a target codenamed Ballentine, who was killed on 16 November 2009 during an attack in the village of Lewani, in which a local woman also died.


The logs include references to the tracing and killing of other targets on the Jpel list, which do not identify TF 373 as the unit responsible. It is possible that some of the other taskforce names and numbers which show up in this context are cover names for 373, or for British special forces, 500 of whom are based in southern Afghanistan and are reported to have been involved in kill/capture missions, including the shooting in July 2008 of Mullah Bismullah.


Some of these "non 373" operations involve the use of unmanned drones to fire missiles to kill the target: one codenamed Beethoven, on 20 October 2008; one named Janan on 6 November 2008; and an unnamed Jpel target who was hit with a hellfire missile near Khan Neshin on 21 August 2009 while travelling in a car with other passengers (the log records "no squirters [bodies moving about] recorded").


Other Jpel targets were traced and then bombed from the air. One, codenamed Newcastle, was located with four other men on 26 November

  1. The house they were in was then hit with 500lb bombs. "No identifiable features recovered," the log records.


Two other Jpel targets, identified only by serial numbers, were killed on 16 February 2009 when two F-15 bombers dropped four 500lb bombs on a Jpel target: "There are various and conflicting reports from multiple sources alleging civilian casualties … A large number of local nationals were on site during the investigation displaying a hostile attitude so the investigation team did not continue sorting through the site."


One of the leaked logs contains a summary of a conference call on 8 March 2008 when the then head of the Afghan National Directorate of Security, Amrullah Saleh, tells senior American officers that three named Taliban commanders in Kapisa province are "not reconcilable and must be taken out". The senior coalition officer "noted that there would be a meeting with the Kapisa NDS to determine how to approach this issue."

泄漏的日记中有一条包括了二〇〇八年三月8日一遍电话会议的摘要,摘要展现阿富汗江山安理会(Afghan National Directorate of Security)的头头阿姆拉赫·Surrey赫告诉美军的部分高档军士,卡皮萨省的三名塔利班首领“不能与之和平解决,必需具有动作”,联军的高等军士“表示须求与卡皮萨国家安理会进行洽谈,以明确怎样举行那项职责。”

It is not clear whether "taken out" meant "killed" and the logs do not record any of their deaths. But one of them, Qari Baryal, who was ranked seventh in the Jpel list, had already been targeted for killing two months earlier.


On 12 January 2008, after tracking his movements for 24 hours, the coalition established that he was holding a large meeting with other men in a compound in Pashkari and sent planes which dropped six 500lb bombs and followed up with five strafing runs to shoot those fleeing the scene.


The report records that some 70 people ran to the compound and started digging into the rubble, on which there were "pools of blood", but subsequent reports suggest that Baryal survived and continued to plan rocket attacks and suicide bombings.


Numerous logs show Jpel targets being captured and transferred to a special prison, known as Btif, the Bagram Theatre Internment Facility. There is no indication of prisoners being charged or tried, and previous press reports have suggested that men have been detained there for years without any legal process in communal cages inside vast old air hangars. As each target is captured, he is assigned a serial number. By December 2009, this showed that a total of 4,288 prisoners, some aged as young as 16, had been held at Btif, with 757 still in custody.

汪洋的战事日志申明,Jpel名单上的靶子人物在被缉拿后就被撤换来一座特殊的铁窗里面,那座监狱的完备是巴格Lamb战区收容所(Bagram Theatre Internment Facility),简称Btif。未有别的凭据评释,关押在那边的阶下囚事先经过上诉或审判,并且在此以前就有媒体揭穿说,有些囚犯以至不通过诉讼程序就被扣留了一些年,监狱是一座高大的飞机棚屋改造换而成的,犯人就被关在在那之中的国有牢笼中。每抓获多个指标人物,就给他分配一个行列号,结束到二〇〇六年11月,Btif总共收押了4288名囚犯,在那之中的一部分罪人竟是独有拾陆周岁。到近来截止,那座监狱中如故拘押者757名囚犯。

Who are TF373?

The leaked war logs show that Task Force 373 uses at least three bases in Afghanistan, in Kabul, Kandahar and Khost. Although it works alongside special forces from Afghanistan and other coalition nations, it appears to be drawing its own troops from the 7th Special Forces Group at Fort Bragg, North Carolina and to travel on missions in Chinook and Cobra helicopters flown by 160th special operations aviation regiment, based at Hunter Army Airfield, Georgia.

泄密的战事日志注脚,373特遣部队在阿富汗起码使用过三处军基,分别是累西腓以及霍斯特。纵然该部队单元与来自阿富汗以及别的部分国家的卓殊部队一同实践过义务,但有迹象申明那支队伍容貌的大兵主假诺来源于马里兰拉各斯堡的第七异样部队,并且在实施空中职责时,担负驾车奇努克运输直接升学机和太攀蛇攻击直接升学机(Chinook and Cobra helicopters)的试飞员来自第160特种应战航空团(160th special operations aviation regiment),其米国所属集散地位于George亚州的Hunter军用机场。